piątek, 11 listopada 2011

Poland of Boleslav Chrobry - the Brave

Son of Mieszko The First, first historical ruler of Poland Boleslav The Brave (Chrobry) raised to power soon after Mieszko's death in 992. After beating and banishing his 2 brothers Mieszko and Lambert (whose should not be mistaken with Mieszko II Lambert – son of Boleslav the Brave who succeeded him ) Boleslav took the throne of Poland in 992

After Wiki:

„Bolesłav I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into a country that was not only comparable to older western monarchies, but he elevated it into the European elite. Bolesłav conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs.

Bolesłav I also managed to establish a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, independent of German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which laid claims to the Polish area. During the famous Congress of Gniezno he was able to officially free himself of tribute to Germany and finally, in his most momentous act, he had himself crowned King, the first Polish ruler to do so.” From obvious reason it will be most interesting to list military exploits of Boleslav.

W know that by June of 992 he was unquestioned ruler of Poland after banishing his stepmother Oda and two brothers and destroying opposition and blinding of two most powerful enemies magnates Odylen and Przybywoj which crushed opposition so well that we don’t know about any other internal movements against him for whole reign. Quick action and ruthlessness was to be his trademarks.
Tarczownicy 4sp

In first part of his reign he was mostly concerned in internal reorganization and continual Christianization. He allied himself with young Emparror Otto III. He supported his expedition against Lusatians in 992.  And he organized Christianizing missions into pagan Prussia. Most important was mission of later Saint Vojciech (Adalbert of Prague) Czech prince and former bishop of Prague who was martyred by Prussians in 997. Czech Premyslids of Bohemia refused to ransom his body and Boleslav bought it (paying its weight in gold) and put to rest in Cathedral in Gniezno – Boleslav capitol. Wojciech was canonized as Saint Adalbert by Pope He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Prussia. Canonization of Vojciech increased the prestige of the Polish church in Europe and the prestige of Polish state on the international arena.
Tarczownicy 4Sp

In year 1000 one of most important events of Boleslav rule occurred in form of Congress of Gniezno. Emperror Otto III visited Gniezno officialy in pilgrimage to grave of St Vojciech, but also for political meeting with Mieszko. Ottos Agenda was to federate Poland and Hungary with Empire extending its universalistic rule much further than ever.

Boleslav was freed from tribute for the Empire, and Gniezno was accepted as seat of first polish church metropolis with own polish Archbishop independent from Magdeburg and 3 new Bishopies. Most important was elevation of Boleslaw. Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesłav I's brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius. Boleslav also became Patrician of the Empire.

Unfortunately restoration of Empire was stopped by unexpected death of Otto in 1002. And his successor Henry II was opposed to his plans towards the east. Boleslav suported  Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen for Emperror throne and in the turmoil of succesion war took Margraviate of Meissen and March of Lusatia, including strongholds Budziszyn and Strzala. He then supported henrys claim, and was rewarded with Lusatia as a fief but he had to give up on Meissen. But after few years Henry organized failed assassination attempt for Boleslav that lead to inevitable and long war. At same time in 1003 he helped Boleslaw III the Red in succession conflict in Bohemia, but after new duke misconduct as a ruler and massacre of noble elites at Vyszehrad, Boleslav was asked by remaining nobles to remove Boleslaw III. Boleslav The Brave invited him to Cracow  and then blinded and imprisoned where he ultimately died in prison many years later. Boleslav The great was in position to claim Bohemian Crown for himself what he did capturing Prague in 1003, also claiming upper Hungary (Slovakia) and Morawia which he both held until peace of 1018.

Poland in Boleslav's reign and his conquests

Wars with Germany 1002-1018

After capturing Lusatia and Meissen in 1002 Boleslav now in conflict with new Emperror Henry, refused to pay him a tribute from these lands. Henry organized expedition allied with Slavic Lutetians. After campaign in 1004 Boleslav lost title and country of Bohemia. And then in 1005 Henry recaptured Meissen and stroke attack into Poland itself, where near Posen peace treaty was made according to which Boleslav lost Lusetia and Meissen (then in Emperrors hands) and denounced his claims to Czech throne.

Next war started in 1007 with Henry II denouncing the Peace of Posen,

Bolesłav attacked on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg and retook of marches of Lusatia and Meissen including the city of Bautzen.

In 1010 Henry organized counter offensive but it was not successful, in 1012 another peace was signed.

This time that was Boleslav who broken the peace, when in 1013 he invaded Lusatia again. And after peace in Meresburg the same year Bolesław  paid homage to Henry II and in exchange received the March of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs. Aditionaly in 1013 his heir Mieszko Lambert (later Mieszko II Lambert) was married to Richesa of Lotharingien granddaughter of emperor Otto III.

In 1014 Boleslav tried to ally himself with Bohemian prince against Emperor Henry and refused to help Emperor in his Italian expeditions. That led to imperial intervention in Poland in 1015 and another war started.

At first Emperor was victorious as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at Ciani in 1015. But later Bolesław  sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary attack against the Eastern March. So the Imperial army retreated from Poland without making any gains. After repelling attack Boleslav took initiative and later that year defeated and killed  Margrave of Meissen, Gero II. And later sent an army led by Mieszko Lambert to plunder Meissen.

In 1017 Bolesław  defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria.

Later in 1017 Henry II invaded Poland second time  with help of Bohemians and Weneds and besieged city of Głogów – when he tied hostages to siege machinery in attempt to weaken defenders resolve but failed to capture the city and had to retreat..

Boleslav used excuse of Bohemians in Emperors army and sent Mieszko Lambert to invade Czech again which was meet with little resistance. That Forced Emperror to sign Peace of Budziszyn in 1018. that was total victory to Boleslav. Not only was he given Sorbian Meisen and Lusatia not as fiefs but as permanent parts of Poland but he was promised military support in a war against Kievan Russ and married to Oda daughter of  Meissen’s margrave.

Intervention in the Kievan Russ 1915-1919

First Boleslav’s expeditions in to Russ were in 1015. But he attacked decisively after peace of Budziszyn in 1018. He Invaded on behalf of his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev. He led huge army between 2 and 5 thousand of Polish troops. 1000 of Pechengs, 300 German knights ( provided as part of Peace accords of Budziszyn) and 500 Hungarian mercenaries.

23 July at the banks of the Bug River, he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev. After the battle Yaroslav retreated north to Novogrod and that left Kiev vulnerable.

City already besieged by mentioned Pecheng allies of Boleslav surrendered at 14 August at the sight of Polish army.

 There are two legends about his entrance to the city. One official and second unofficial.

First tells that Boleslav notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the legendary Golden Gate of Kiev. This sword was later used as ceremonial coronation sword of Poland. Szczerbiec is single crown jewel of Piast dynasty that is surviving today (off course sword itself is from later times , and was first used in coronation of Wladyslaw Łokietek in 1320 , and was forged somewhere in XII or XIII century but official legend pints to this moment of 1018 and Kievs Golden gate) .

Second  is much more probable and tells that after cracking Golden gate of Kiev open Boleslav promised to his soldiers that as this gate cracked that will crack virginity of Yaroslav the Wise sister Predslava that was in the captured city. 

Boleslav had to leave the city later this year after some disagreement with Sviatopelk but regained Red cities called later Red Ruthenia whose were in Polish hands till 1031.

After 1018 there were peaceful and quiet times but Boleslav did not lost his political predatory instincts . After death of his long time nemesis Henry II, Boleslav took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself king in 1025, thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom.

He was the first Polish king (rex), his predecessors having been considered dukes (dux) by the Holy Roman Empire and the papacy.

In 1015 Boleslav supplied his nephew Cnut The Gereat with unspecified cavalry forces in support of his conquest of England. Cnut was crowned in 1016 as King of England with Boleslav help and support.

Previous post on early history of Poland:
Mieszko I and the Dawno of Poland

Battle fo Cedynia 972

6 komentarzy:

  1. Do którego roku zamierzasz tak dojść AWu? ;)

  2. Nie wiem, zobaczę do kiedy będę miał figurki :> Na razie się skończyły ale jak zakupię Niemców to zrobię o reakcji pogańskiej i Brzetysławie :>

  3. Bardzo kolorowe figury - właśnie takie, jakie lubię ostatnio :)

  4. Niezły flaf ma ta armia ;)
    Mam co prawda mieszane uczucia jak patrze na te modele, ale im więcej widzę pomalowanych tym jakoś bardziej się do nich przekonuję.
    W twoim wykonaniu jako całość wygląda świetnie. Gratulacje!!
    Może kiedyś sobie takich wojów Mirmiła sprawię, a armię Hodona zrobię jako zbójcerzy, tylko kaprala trzeba będzie konwertować :)

  5. Ten komentarz został usunięty przez autora.

  6. ja zaczynałem od nielubienia ich ale zyskali po pomalowaniu mocno.

    Kawaleria mi się bardzo podoba. Jest super.
    Ale piechota średnio. Najmniej łucznicy.
    Mimo, że to wśród tarczowników są dwa bałwanki. Jednak po pomalowaniu nie widać tej bałwankowości i są fajni.
    No i lubię malować tarcze.

    trzeba sie do stylu QR przekonac po prostu.

    Jednego w modelach QR zdecydowanie nie lubię. Tarcze maja wzmocnienia metalowe w dziwnych miejscach...
    Po pierwsze wyczytałem u Nadolskiego że umba na tarczach nie były masowo stosowane, zwłaszcza na migdałach, a po drugie z własnego doświadczenia (bractwo w którym byłem odgrywało waregów z Rusi) wiem, że wzmocnienia takie jak na tych tarczach są dość bezsensowne jednak.
    Na kliku usunąłem zresztą.

    Ale ogólnie za 70 zł armia na wielki plus.
    tylko trzeba pamiętać , ze to spore modele.
    Przy moich przyszłych Sasanidach to tytani...


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